By 222 BC, even more territory had been gained by the armies of Rome.
Frequent battles with the Guals to the north caused Rome to take
control of lands up to the river Po, in the north of Italy. In 219 BC
Rome made use of it's fleet by conquering the Illyrian pirates that
had been terrorizing the Adriatic coast. Carthage's new general
Hannibal Barca, the son of Hamilcar, had also been busy. Harboring a
great resentment towards Rome, Hannibal led his armies in a siege
against Saguntum, an ally of Rome that held strategic importance over
the fields of Valencia in eastern Spain. Rome's complaints to
Carthage, which had little control over it's wayward general, were of
no use. The second Punic War was started in 218 BC.
Hannibal was succesful in a number of battles against his Roman
enemies, and by 216 BC he had secured Campania to the south of Rome.
However, the Romans were able to destroy Hannibal's reinforcements
through Spain, and prevent any further aid to Hannibal by land.
Hannibal's position was quickly deteriorating, despite large
victories against the Roman armies, due to the lack of support from
Carthage across the sea. Hannibal was forced to hastily retreat back
to Carthage in 203 BC after the Roman general Scipio marched his
fresh army across Carthage's African territories. Hannibal was
defeated at Zama in 202 BC, and Carthage quickly surrendered. The
entire eastern coast of Spain was given to Rome, and Carthage was
forbidden from making war in the small African territory it stil
controlled. Spain was quickly to become the new target of Rome's
dominance, and no other power could offer a threat.